Overview of Species Information for All Named Theraphosidae Divided by Subfamily
     This list is for better understanding the similarities, differences, and distribution of a broad range of tarantulas.  It is by no means complete in terms of information provided.
     The main aim is to foster ecological awareness via exploring systematic relationships. Bear in mind, the taxonomy of Theraphosidae can become a complicated thing as new species are discovered, different relationships among tarantulas are studied, and the simple fact that there are so many variations known and waiting to be known.  Only one thing is an absolute as of this date concerning theraphosids: the words always, all, and never seldom apply!  In consideration of such, my approach will be casual; likewise, some taxonomic perspectives may not be present here (e.g., works published in non-peer-reviewed journals, etc. will be taken with the proverbial grain of salt and feature an asterisk, if listed at all).
     With concern toward tarantulas kept as pets, the species in green are often easily kept by people who have some common sense, those in yellow could be difficult due to temperament or housing needs, and those in red could easily pose problems due to unique needs, rarity, or typical temperament.  If the species is in gray or only genus is listed, it's likely uncommon in the US pet trade and I really don't have a clue about it.
      I certainly did not just wake up one morning and have all this info- it came from helpful sharing from the tarantula-keeping community (thanks Mikhail Bagaturov, Robert Breene, G.B. Edwards, Richard Gallon, Martin Huber, Stan Schultz, Rick C. West, and Volker von Wirth!)  and I must absolutely cite The World Spider Catalog by Norman I. Platnick as a primary source.

The Lucky 13 Subfamilies (click n' go):

Acanthopelminae Aviculariinae Eumenophorinae Harpactirinae
Ischnocolinae Ornithoctoninae Poecilotheriinae* Selenocosmiinae
Selenogyrinae Spelopeminae* Stromatopelminae Theraphosinae

A Simplified Listing of Just Subfamilies and their Genera is Located Here.


Subfamily: Acanthopelminae
South and Central American terrestrial tarantulas.

Common Name
Odds n' Ends
Acanthopelma  beccarii 
None Not common in the pet trade.   .  This used to be the home of A. annae, which was the smallest known tarantula (full-grown adults that are about the size of a fingernail), but subsequent study by arachnologists placed it in its own genus under  the Barychelidae family.
A. rufescens, native to Guatemala and Costa Rica, is a small, brownish/purple tarantula with light orange patterning on the abdomen. 

Back to top

Subfamily: Aviculariinae
Avicularia means "small bird" in Latin due to an early misconception about a tarantula's preferred diet, but it may as well mean "flat-footed-spider-with-something-odd-about-its-urticating-hair" due to the characteristics of some members of this subfamily.
For example, take the members of the Avicularia genus:  They are tropical arboreal spiders common from the Caribbean to South America and many are commonly sold as "pinktoes," no matter what species they are.  Some, such as Avicularia avicularia, can  tolerate each other in a group setting if given enough space, but will kill each other on occasion if there's not enough room or food.  They're fairly docile, but can move quickly if need be.  What's really special about most of them and the genera Iridopelma and Pachistopelma is that not only are they the only arboreals with urticating hair, they can't "flick" the hair to make it float off into the air.  The type of urticating bristles they possess (Type II) must be pressed into its intended target (A. versicolor may differ).
Also included are the bizzarre Ephebopus tarantulas.  They have flattened "feet" like arboreal spiders, yet prefer to dig burrows.  Those "platypus" tarantulas are the only known genus with urticating hair on their pedipalps.
Some taxonomists include members of the genera Psalmopoeus and Tapinauchenius, which have no urticating hair, in this subfamily; along with some members of  Holothele, they are some of the few New World tarantulas that lack that trait.

What's really confusing is that many of the described species of the Avicularia genus are probably invalid.  There are descriptions based on cast exoskeletons acquired from a "friend of a friend," descriptions of only one gender, descriptions without locality data (except to say they came from a friend's pet collection- in some cases, that's where the species name is derived), descriptions with no examinations of other holotypes in the genus, etc. Unfortunately, systematics for theraphosids isn't a scrutinized, regulated thing.  Snippets from a fanzine-style journal published without peer review is enough to get a "species" listed in the World Spider Catalog.   This is fun, exciting, and sometimes profitable for pet traders, but quite unfortunate for those wishing to understand faunal relationships and environmental impacts within ecosystems.  Questionable species are marked with an asterisk.

Note: For the genus Psalmopoeus, see here.
Note: For the genus Tapinauchnius, see here.


Common Name
Odds n' ends
Avicularia affinis*, alticeps, ancylochira, anthracina* None The brownish A. ancylochira may be found along the Tapajoz river, living in in the bark of trees high above flooded swampland (Charpentier 1992).

There is little about A. anthracina that would place it in this genus.  Koch's drawing displays a terrestrially-oriented spider that is overall dark brown with pale spinnerets. 

A. affinis ranges as far south as Chile. However, Nicolet's description and drawing reveal nothing like other members of Avicularia.  It may be more correctly placed in a different genus (Nicolet describes it as quite similar to P. scrofa).  Its placement in the World Spider Catalog is  perhaps simply a typo that originated with mass-movement of species in the genera "Mygale".

Orange banded pinktoe, Yellow banded pinktoe,
Brazillian pinktoe, etc.
These Peruvians are
not one of the more colorful avics.  They have an overall brownish coloring and are very similar in many respects to A. juruensis and may be the same species. 
Avicularia avicularia;
avicularia variegata
Guyana Pinktoe
Arboreal tarantulas that need humidity and good ventilation; formerly  "banned" in Florida due to the similarity of their natural habitat to that state's environment, but that law has been repealed.
These were the first tarantulas recorded by western science (described by Linnaeus in 1758).
Though most are collected in Guyana, they are a wide ranging species that lives in a broad portion of northern South America and has also been found on Trinidad.
A. avicularia variegata, in its most extreme form, has gray/whitish tips on the longer hairs, and entirely lacks the reddish setae on the rear legs, though it retains some orangish tint on the abdomen. F.O.P. Cambridge hypothesized that perhaps the variant may evolve into another species. Sometimes A. avicularia variegata are sold as Avicularia metallica in the pet trade, so striking is the difference in the most extreme specimens.
Further information is located here.
Avicularia aymara, azuraklaasi* None South to Central American. A. azuraklaasi may not be a valid species. Marc Tesmoingt wrote a description of A. azuraklaasi based on two molted exoskeletons supplied to him via Andre Braunshausen from specimens that supposedly originated from Peter Klaas; Tesmoignt claimed they came from Peru.  Who collected them and exactly where they did so is a mystery. 
Both were female.  Even by European "arthropod fanzine" standards, the description is exceptionally unscientific in quality. Unfortunately, all published descriptions stand in Platnick's catalog, so here it is (for now) on this list and many others. 
Avicularia bicegoi  Brick Red Birdeater A gorgeous pinktoe from Brazil (sometimes found on dealer websites as being from Martinique) with a red rump and greenish carapace.
Avicularia borelli* None Hails from Paraguay, near Colonia Risso.  Simon's description is very brief; nothing is mentioned that would place it in this genus. 
Avicularia braunshauseni* Goliath Pinktoe These S. Americans are very similar to A. avicularia in coloration, physical attributes, and habitat, but supposedly attain a larger size. 
Specimens in the pet trade also seem to have longer and denser red setae on legs IV. Some doubt that it is actually an entirely different species from A. avicularia. It was described by Tesmoingt in 1999 as a "large, docile spider from the 'island' (sic) of Santana that feeds primarily on roaches".  HJ Peters redescribed it in 2000 along with the dubious species of A. geroldi and A. ulrichea.
Avicularia  caesia*,cuminami*, detrita, diversipes, doleschalli*,
exilis*, fasciculata
None A. detrita and A. diversipes, like several others in this genus, do not have pink "toes".

A. caesia is likely the same animal as A. laeta.  A. cuminami and A. doleschalli were also described from juveniles by Mello-Leitao and Ausserer, respectively.  Furthermore, Keyserling makes reference to A. doleschalli in his description of Cyclosternum janierum (both were at the time Ishnocolus).
It's possible that A. doleschalli got caught in the "mass movement" like A. affinis.
In addition, some scientists
feel that Strand's descriptions of A. exilis, A. fasciculata, and A. fasciculata clara are greatly lacking in detail, including locality data, and therefore shouldn't be considered valid. (Charpentier 1992).

Avicularia geroldi* Brazilian Blue and Red Pinktoe Pretty and pricey (for possibly exploitive reasons) South American arboreals.  Very similar to A. avicularia and many suspect that they're the same species.  This one was also loosely described by Tesmoingt in 1999 and named after Andre Braunshausen's grandfather.  The obvious comparison to traits of A. avicularia-complex species are ignored in the paper, and a distinction is made on the basis of a minute "dog's head" shape of one of the spermathecae- a highly variable feature.
Avicularia glauca*, gracilis*,
guyana, hirsuta*
None Central and South American; 
A. glauca was described from a juvenile by Simon. Cambridge's entire entry is as follows:"The type specimen, kindly submitted to me for examination by M. Simon, is evidently an immature example, and it will always be difficult to decide exactly as to which particular species of Avicularia it belongs,"  (Cambridge 42). 
That sentiment could likely go for a good many species in the genus, including A. gracilis. Keyserling's specimen was very small (possibly a juvenile, but he asserts that it is female), and very worn.  The colors had faded to yellowish-brown, and the abdomen was completely bald. There is nothing in the description that would lead one to believe that it belongs in Avicularia.  It's likely a "typo" from the big "Eurypelma move".
A. hirsuta does not belong in this genus. Simon accidentally synonomized Iridopelma hirsutum (from Pernambuco, Brazil) into this genus. That mistake was cleared up, but the actual spider described by Ausserer is a terrestrial from Cuba and the Bahamas (Petrunkevitch asserts that it is likely a "Lasiodora or Eurypelma").  It is clearly not an Avicularia, nor an Iridopelma
Ecuadorian Wooly, Ecuadorian Pinktoe
Large (in fact, by far the largest Avicularia species in girth and span I've ever seen. Supposed "A. metallica" and "A. branshauseni" specimens are not excepted), bushy arboreals. 
Brazilian Yellowbanded 
These have a yellow ring before the pink toe, and get their name from the Jurua river in Brazil.  This may be  the same spider as A. aurantiaca; A. juruensis would be the name that takes priority.
Avicularia laeta, leporina None A. laeta has a light golden color overall as an adult.  As youngsters, they are bluish, like A. versicolor.  They are a wide ranging species in Puerto Rico, from Isla Culebra to the west coast. 
It is not uncommon in the Virgin Islands, and some say it exists in S. America as well.
 A. caesia is likely the same thing as A. laeta. A. leporina is similar in appearance to A. avicularia, but does not posses pink "toes".
Metallic Pinktoe, Whitetoe 
 Arboreal tarantulas from the same range as A. avicularia; in fact, they are very similar to A. avicularia overall and some suspect they may not only hybridize in the wild, but be variations of the same species. Charpentier (1992) reports regular "hybridization" between supposed A. metallica and A. avicularia with fertile offspring in captivity. Ausserer's original description makes no mention of reddish setae; instead, he speaks of brownish hairs tipped in white (particularly noticable about the femora), giving the spider's legs a "magnificently, metallically shining coloring." 
The only non-coloration differences Ausserer mentions to distinguish it from A. avicularia (he actually references A. vestaria) is that the tibia of legs IV are slightly longer and the tubercle is a bit more curved and slightly less wide.
Avicularia minatrix Venezuelan Redslate These brownish avics tend to retain the black and red patterning on their abdomens as adults.
They are from a drier region than most pinktoes (northern Venezuela, near hilly, semiarid Duaca) and don't attain a very large size. 
nigrotaeniata*,obscura*, ochracea
palmicola, panamensis*
parva*, plantaris, pulchra*
Wide range.  A.nigrotaeniata are likely to be the same thing as A. avicularia. A. ochracea is from Rio Negro, Brazil.  It is quite "hairy".
Koch's description and drawing of A. plantaris does little to distinguish between it and A. avicularia.
A. panamensis is probably a terrestrial member of Theraphosinae  - there is nothing in its description that alludes to traits of Avicularia. Ausserer's type for A. obscura was a juvenile of indeterminate genus. Pocock hypothesized that the Columbian spider may be a Hapalopus. Unfortunately, the specimens Mello-Leitao used to describe A. pulchra were juveniles.  Same with A. parva.  Both are likely invalid species (Petrunkevitch described the type of A. parva as too small to make a detemrination of genus, but is probably terrestrial).
Ecuadorian Pinktoe, Ecuadorian Purple
These have a purplish hue under the right light. 
They are from Ecuador and are as adaptable to mankind's presence as its eastern cousin, A. avicularia.
Avicularia rapax, recifiensis, rufa
rutilans, soratae
surinamensis*, taunayi
tigrina*, ulrichea*
None South American.
A. recifiensis was newly described by Struchen and Brandle in 1996. A. subvulpina and A. surinamensis were described by Strand in 1906 and 1907, respectively.  However,  he didn't inlcude much data in his descriptions. 
A. tigrina, of Montevideo, is erroneously placed in this genus.  It's likely terrestrial. 
Some think A. ulrichea is a variant of A. urticans.  It was loosely described in the flurry of papers by Tesmoingt in 1996.
A. soratae gets its moniker from its locality in Bolivia.
Avicularia urticans Peruvian Pinktoe Recently described by Schmidt in 1994.  Most specimens have a more drab carapace and the long setae of legs IV are not as vibrant as some other Avicularia.
Avicularia velutina* None Described from specimens collected in San Esteban, Venezuela; however, some were also collected on the island of Trinidad.  Many suspect that A. velutina is actually the same as A. avicularia.
Antilles Pinktoe
Another colorful beauty that commands a high price. They have greenish carapaces and pinkish/purple colored hairs on their fuzzy legs and abdomens.
The tibial apohpyses are simply rows of spikes rather than  pronounced spurs.
They are from Martinique, Guadelupe, and other adjacent islands.
Some (both in the European scientific community and locals of the island) have asserted that they enjoy a diet consisting of a fair portion of small treefrogs in the wild.  The assumption is that this diet causes them to be more skittish and possibly more defensive with the fangs than some other Avicularia species. I have observed the prediliction for tree frogs, but not any marked defensiveness.
Furthermore, some have seen them making a kicking motion to discharge urticating bristles (Bertani 1996).  I haven't seen this either, but don't doubt it.
Avicularia violacea*, walckenaeri
Brazil.  A. violacea was described as Ephebopus from a juvenile by Mello-Leitão; it's clearly an Avicularia, but which one?
A. walckenaeri is an incredibly hirsute spider with pinks "toes", similar to A. huriana.
Ephebopus cyanognathus None
(Tentatively called 
French Guiana Blue Fang in the pet trade)
Gorgeous!  They have purplish legs and opisthosomas, blue chelicera that are stunning, and yellow to orangish bands at the leg joints.  They were described by Rick West in 2000.
They are becoming fairly regularly bred in captivity.
Ephebopus murinus, rufescans Skeleton Tarantula
(just Ephebopus murinus)
Burgundy Skeleton
(E. rufescans)


It is odd that a terrestrial tarantula has been placed  in the subfamily Aviculariinae, but that's where it resides.  These "bulldoggish" spiders are rarely arboreal (though sometimes found in trees, in root structure near the ground); they prefer to burrow and have their urticating hairs on their pedipalps (a type of urticating bristles that can be airborne.  The other members of this subfamily that possess urticating bristles only have Type II, which must be pressed into an assailant on contact).
Supposedly, they're somewhat defensive (one of mine, however, is a doll). 
Their reputed temperament and rarity place them in the yellow category.
Further information and photos of E. murinus are located here.
Ephebopus uatuman, fossor* None
(Sometimes E. uatuman are marketed as "Emerald Skeleton")
  E. uatuman has yellow bands at the "knee" joints", lacks the striping of E. murinus and E. rufescans,  and their carapaces and abdomens have a greenish tint; overall, they're a tawny orange color when approaching a molt and a drab olive after molting.  There is a shiny blue-violet tint on the ventral surface of legs I. Males are reddish-orange overall at maturity.  More information and photos are located here.
The type specimens for E. fossor (collected near Rio Sapayo, Ecuador) were lost many years ago and it's possible that Pocock was describing an entirely different species.  Those selling so-called "E. fossor" are actually selling Ephebopus "whoknowswhatus" (and  usually come from nowhere near Ecuador).
Iridoplema hirsutum Yellow Lined Treespider Fuzzy, tawny colored arboreals that are very similar to members of the Avicularia genus.  They have Type II urticating bristles, and the males have spurs on legs I and II. Contrary to some websites, it has nothing to do with the "Ischnocolus hirsutus" described by Ausserer in 1875. The spider that is now known (erroneously) as Avicularia hirsuta is a terrestrial from the Caribbean.
Iridoplema seladonium None From Brazil.
According to Koch's drawing, this spider is a real stunner. It has a green carapace, orange femora, bluish tibia and tarsi, blue chelicerae. . .essentially, a tree-dwelling C. cyaneopubescens.
Iridoplema zorodes Brazilian Purple Kept like most members of Avicularia.  What was in the pet trade in the late 1990's as I. zorodes resembled I. hirsutum more than anything "purple".
Pachistopelma concolor, rufonigrum None From Guyana and Brazil (Iguarassu), respectively.  They have Type II urticating bristles, and quite limited ranges. 

 Back to top

Subfamily: Eumenophorinae
These are the big African "baboon" spiders.  They are normally very defensive and most like to dig deep burrows.  The majority of the members of this subfamily require a good amount of humidity.

Common Name
Odds n' ends
Anoploscelus celeripes, lesserti None Central African and rare
Batesiella crinita None Cameroon
Citharischius crawshayi King Baboon
Large burrowing spiders with beautiful rust-colored, velvety "fur" that are easily distinguished from Hysterocrates spp. by their very thick rear legs.  These are native to East-Central Africa and the females may get up to 7 or 8" in legspan.
Their defensiveness and size can make them difficult to keep in captivity (though they do have lots of young).
Supposedly, they are extremely difficult to breed.
Those issues and their high cost and slow growth rate put them in the red category.
In addition, this species prefers a drier climate than most members of this subfamily.
I'll bet it's a loud one!  Seriously, it hasn't been redescribed or reviewed since 1907, and may or may not exist.
Encyocrates raffrayi None Madagascar
Eumenophorus clementsi, murphyorum Sierra Leone Mouse Brown and Greater Sierra Leone Mouse Brown, respectively Sierra Leone
Hysterocrates affinis, angusticeps
(H. apostolicus is sometimes called "cricket-legged baboon" in the pet trade)
Like all the Hysterocrates species, these are deep burrowers that need plenty of substrate.  They also enjoy high humidity.
Hysterocrates  crassipes Cameroon Brown Obviously from Cameroon.
Unfortunately, many of the original descriptions of this genus aren't detailed, and west-central Africa's political climate doesn't afford much opportunity for obtaining further data currently. Therefore, the species names attached to Hysterocrates spp. in the pet trade is somewhat subjective.
What circulates in the pet trade as H. crassipes currently has "football" shaped swelling of the tibia, even as an adult.
They were often sold as H. gigas in the late 1990's (in fact, my female H. crassipes was obtained when I accepted a supposed penultimate male H. gigas on breed loan from a US dealer).
didymus, ederi
H. didymus is called an Olive Brown Baboon and H. ederi is sometimes called 
the Guinea Goliath
From Sao Tome and Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Island), respectively. Some say Hysterocrates ederi can swim!  I haven't seen mine try, but don't doubt it as it thrives in a fairly moist environment.
Cameroon Red, Cameroon Tawny Red, Cameroon Rusted
Hysterocrates gigas is particularly common in the pet trade.  They breed easily and members of Hysterocrates species actually care for their young for a bit, rather than leaving them to disperse immediately. More information and photos of this species are located here.
greeffi, greshoffi, haasi
Central Africans
Hercules Baboon, African Goliath
 H. hercules is more often seen in the rainforests of Nigeria, near the Niger river.  It is also
shy and aggressively sought out by collectors. The difference between H. gigas and H. hercules is subtle and therefore the two are often confused in the pet trade.
In fact, it could be likely that H. hercules is simply a varient of H. gigas.
laticeps,maximus , ochraceus
robustus, robustus sulcifer, scepticus,sjostedti, spellenbergi .
vosseleri, weileri
None, but H. laticeps is sometimes sold as Cameroon Rustred
(not to be confused with H. gigas) and H. scepticus is sometimes marketed as "Sao Tome Giant" or "Sao Tome Giant Olive Brown Baboon".
Hysterocrates scepticus may or may not be in the pet trade.  What some importers called H. ederi in 1998-9 has been called H. scepticus in 2003-2004.   It's another island species, like H. ederi.
Loxomphalia rubida None Zanzibar
Loxoptygus coturnatus ectypus erlangeri None Ethiopian
Mascarenus  remotus None Found on the Mascarene Islands, Mauritius.  Apparently, it has no stridulating organ, unlike all the other members of this subfamily.
Monocentropus balfouri,  lambertoni, 
None  Socotra, Madagascar, and 
Yemen, respectively.
M. lambertoni is named after Col. Lamberton, an explorer of Madagascar.
Myostola occidentalis None Central Africa
Phoneyusa antilope,  belandana,
 bettoni, bidentata,
bidentata ituriensis,  bouvieri, buettneri
celerierae, chevalieri
 cultridens, efuliensis
elephantiasis, gabonica
giltayi, gracilipes
gregori, lesserti
None Central to Southern Africa.
P. bouvieri actually lives in Madagascar, in "Tana",  the hilly region around Antananrivo.  It's a central highland area with humid earth and mild temperatures.
Phoneyusa manicata Olive-black Baboon Defensive, burrowing, and from Principe.  It is not as available in the pet trade as it was in the 1990's. I don't know if anyone bred them in captivity.
Phoneyusa minima
mutica,  nigroventris
principium, rufa, rutilata,
 sp. westi
(Phoneyusa sp. was sold in the pet trade as "Wannabehercules")
"Wannabehercules" is similar to H. hercules, but grows smaller and doesn't have stocky rear legs.

Back to top

Subfamily: Harpactirinae
These are also African "baboon" spiders.  Though smaller, they have unique habits and are still very defensive on the whole; species of Pterinochilus will rear up upon the slightest disturbance.  Some members of this subfamily will often stridulate.  Most are burrowers of dry scrubland habitat, but members of Pterinochilus sometimes show semi-arboreal tendencies.
In 2002, Richard Gallon made major revisions to this subfamily, including the removal of the genus Brachionopus to another family of mygalomorph spiders entirely.

Common Name
Odds n' ends
Augacephalus breyeri, junodi None Southern Africa.  A. breyeri is a former Pterinochilus species. What is now A. junodi was Coelogenium  nigrifemur and Pterinochilus junodi (a description for C. nigrifemur was made using a shed skin that lacked key details. C. nigrifemur turned out to actually be P. junodi) (Gallon 19). Augacephalus is a new genus created for both species in 2002 by Richard Gallon.
Ceratogyrus  bechuanicus Curvedhorn
These burrowers have an odd protrusion on their carapace that gives them their common names. However, not all members of this genus have the "horn"; an actual distinguishing visible trait is a pale band on the ventral side of the opisthosoma (however, see notes under C. paulseni). A. junodi is the only other species in this subfamily with that marking (Gallon 3). In any case, the "horn" of this species happens to be rearward facing and slightly curved. Like most African species, they're quite defensive.
The young are very voracious feeders.
Greaterhorned Baboon
A lot of people like to call this tarantula "Rhino Horned Baboon".  It's a hearty eater with a forward facing "horn".
Several variations exist, with some having a quite pronounced protuberance and others with only a slight plug reminiscent of C. sanderi.
 More information and photos are located here.
Horned Tarantula
Tarantulas with a rearward facing horn.
Ceratogyrus dolichocephalus None Tarantulas of southeast Africa.
No "horn", just an extension of the caput.  It's not in the pet trade.
A species newly described by Richard Gallon in 2001.
It has no "horn".
A former member of the Coelogenium genus.
Straighthorned Baboon, Unicorn Baboon
As its name suggests, this tarantula's horn grows vertically and it's probably the most spectacular "horned" species, as some of their spires may reach nearly an inch in height.  It was formerly known as C. cornuatus until 2001.
More information and photos are located here.
A former member of the Pterincohilus genus. It has no horn.
A former member of the 
Coelogenium genus.
No "horn".
This spider has no "horn", and nor does it have the ventral band common in Ceratogyrus.  The male has not yet been described; when it is, it may be concluded that this is actually an Augacephalus species.
Ceratogyrus sanderi None These have more of a "plug" than a horn.
Eucratoscelus  constrictus None According to Richard Gallon's 2002 revision of the Eucratosceles and Pterincohilus genera, E. longiceps and Pterinochilus spinifer are now known as E. constrictus. 
Oddly enough, I have seen both a spider resembling E. pachypus and spiders that appeared to be tiny Pterincochilus species being sold as "P. spinifer from Tanzania" in the Florida pet trade.
Sometimes E. pachypus
is sold as E. longiceps under the name "Voi Red Rumped Baboon."
In any case, E. constrictus is a plain brown tarantula of smallish to average size that prefers a dry habitat that is not nearly as stout in legs IV as E. pachypus (i.e., almost all the photos I've seen from dealers claiming to sell E. longiceps are actually E. pachypus).
 E. pachypus is usually called Tanzanian Stoutleg Baboon.  Often times, E. pachypus is mistakenly sold as E. longiceps as "Voi Red Rumped Baboon" by some dealers. 
Nigeria, Tanzania, Kenya. These have greatly thickened rear legs.  E. pachypus is a small tarantula, with adults about 4" in legspan.  They prefer a drier climate.
R. Gallon published the first description of male E. pachypus in 2002.
More information and photos of this species are located here.
atra,baviana, cafreriana
guttata, hamiltoni, lineata 
namaquensis, pulchripes
Generally, a location name followed by "baboon spider", such as:
Cape Pigmy Baboon Spider (H. atra) or Hanover Olive Baboon Spider (H. baviana).
 These southern Africans resemble "bushy" Pterinochilus species. Most are only found in South Africa, but H. namaquensisis also found in Namibia.  Dr. Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman, who is doing biodiversity surveys of South Africa, also reports a Harpactira species in Zimbabwe. 
Despite some unsubstantiated rumors, there has never been a death as a direct result of a Harpactira bite (nor the bite of any other Theraphosidae). However, their bite is apparently painful, and may induce nausea in some individuals (Schoeman 2002).
 helenae, insidiosa .
lightfooti,longipes, magna,
Small Africans that range across the continent, with most being southern. H. insidiosa, however, is endemic to southern Morocco, and H. latithorax lives in tropical west Africa.
Idiothele  nigrofulva None This wide-ranging southern African species used to be called Pterinochilus crassispinus until this genus was reintroduced by Gallon in 2002.
alluaudi, chordatus, leetzi*


Dodoma baboon, Ft. Hall, various contrivances of "starburst" and "sunburst," 
etc., sometimes with a town name and a color generality thrown in for good measure
(i.e., "Mombassa starburst" or
"Kilimanjaro Mustard").
Second to the petshop name games that include the words "tiger" or "birdeater" in a tarantula's name, this genus probably has the most temporary and variable "common" names.
 They're from east-central  Africa (primarily Tanzania and Kenya), are generally smaller than the average tarantula, and many individuals can be quite defensive.  They range in color from charcoal gray to golden tawny brown.  They're fast
and sometimes they like to burrow and other times a formerly burrowing individual will desire to live in a tree! 
They grow fast and are easy to breed and care for, yet their speed and prediliction for snippitiness puts them in the yellow category.  They're not in the red category because, well, they're just so easy to keep and control.
Note: P. affinis,  P. brunellii, P. carnivorus, P. raptor, P. sjostedti,  P.  widenmanni,
and Coelogenium raveni 
were found to be the the same animal as Pterinochilus chordatus by Richard Gallon in 2002.  P. leetzi may simply be another "species du jour" , loosley described by Schmidt in a non-peer reviewed publication using pet-trade material.  Until a description with clear collection locale and comparisons to known Pterincohilus occurs in a peer-reviewed journal and type specimens are deposited for review. . .it is a non-species as far as eight is concerned.
Pterinochilus murinus
Golden starburst, Mombassa golden starburst, Usambara,
Usambara orange, Usambara Red, True starburst, etc. so forth, and so on.
See above.  The species commonly sold as "sp" or P. mammillatus that is a shade of orange is just a color variation of P. murinus.  Likewise, P. hindei is the same thing as P. murinus.
 They range in color from dark gray to tan, and some are quite yellowish, and even reddish-orange. It has also been reputed that the orange ones are more arboreal than the yellow ones, (and sometimes the redder ones) and I have observed many of the orange "usambaras" having equal prediliction for both climbing and burrowing.  However, it is probably just pet trade "lore" that distinguishes betwixt the color variations as being separate and distinct in habits. 
Further information, mating and spiderling data, photos, etc., may be found here.
Pterinochilus  simoni
Starburst baboon, Sunburst baboon, etc.
See above. These spiders are inhabitants of the Congo, and not likely collected. 
PterinochilusPhlogiellus vorax None, or variations of above Tanzanian, but not likely collected.  Sometimes varying color forms of P. murinus or P. chordatus are sold as P. vorax.
Trichognathella schoenlandi None These South Africans were formerly known as Pterinochilus shoenlandi until Richard Gallon's 2002 revision established the Trichognathella
genus. Gallon also published the first description of the female of this species.

Back to top

Subfamily: Ischnocolinae
 This is the most widely dispersed subfamily of theraphosidae. Some species are native to the Middle East, some to Asia, others to Southern Europe, and still more to the Americas.  For now, notice the global distribution of eighty separate species (there's one near you!) of which the habits are little understood.  Also, what is the relationship of all the members of such a widespread subfamily?!   What is/are the determining factor(s)?  Why do so many species move in and out of here on a yearly basis?
Clearly, this subfamily is a testament to how little we know about tarantulas.

Common Name
Odds n' ends
argentinense, chicaoi, petropolium, uruguayense None C. argentinense used to be a member of Oligoxystre genus.
The middle two are from Brazil, and the latter is, as the species name states, from Uruguay.
Chaetopelma adenense,anatolicum,
arabicum, gardineri, gracile, karlamani, olivaceum, shabati, strandi
Ranges from the Middle East to Eastern Africa, Cyprus, Seychelles.
Not common in the pet trade (though C. gracile is sold in Europe)
Native to Syria
Hemiercus cervinus, inflatus, kastoni
modestus, proximus
None These are native to Central and South America.  H. cervinus may be found near San Esteban, Venezuela.  H. inflatus was dicovered near Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. H. modestus was found in the Valley of Naricual, Columbia.
Heterothele affinis, atrophac, caudicula* darcheni, decemnotata, gabonensis, honesta
hullwilliamsi, ogbunikia
None Central African genus, yetH. caudicula was described from a specimen found in Patagonia, Argentina.
Heterothele villosella Tanzanian Chestnut Small, defensive Africans
Holothele anomala, colonica, culebrae, denticulata None I am surprised that these are not common in the pet trade.  They range from Brazil to Cuba.
Holothele incei Trinidad Olive These golden tarantulas are reputed to have short periods between mating and actual egg laying.
Holothele  longipes, ludwigi
 recta, rondoni, sanguiniceps, sericea
shoemakeri, steini
None South American and Caribbean.
H. sericea is found near Puerto Plata, Haiti.  H. shoemakeri can be found in the Virgin Islands.
Holothele sulferensis None From near volcanic sulfer mines on Guadeloupe.  It seeks opportunistic shelter, and was recently described in 2005.
None  The name of this Venezuelan is an homage to Dr. Vellard.
Ischnocolus algericus, andalusiacus
decoratus, fasciculatus
 fuscostriatus, hancocki 
holosericeus, jerusalemensis,  jickelii, khasiensis, maroccanus 
mogadorensis, numidus 
rubropilosus, syriacus 
tomentosus, triangulifer
tripolitanus, tunetanus 
None These are from Isreal to West Africa, Southern Spain (I. andalusiacus, I. holosericeus, and I. valentinus), Italy (I. triangulifer), and south to the Congo
Nesiergus halophilus,insulanus None Indigenous to the lovely Seychelles Islands
Oligoxystre  auratum,
None From Uruguay and Brazil. These are the only New World Theraphosidae known to spin a fixed eggsac.
Plesiophrictus bhori, blatteri, collinus
fabrei, guangxiensis, linteatus
madraspatanus, mahabaleshwari, meghalayaensis.
millardi, milleti, raja
satarensis, senffti
sericeus, tenuipes
None Most are from India, Sri Lanka, and Micronesia
P. guangxiensis is a plain brown spider from China and was described in 2000 by Yin and Tan. 
Pseudoligoxystre bolivianus  None A species described by Fabian Vol in 2001.
Sickius longibulbi None This spider's genus was revitalized by Rogerio Bertani in 2002.  It used to be called Hapalotremus longibulbi.
Apparently, the black and reddish Brazilian is one of only two known theraphosids that have no spermathecae. The male's sperm, transferred via the normal method of palpal bulbs, is stored in the uterus externus, like spiders even more primitive than tarantulas.
Genus: Proshapalopus
I've put this in its own genus category separate from the Ischnocolinae table due to the fact that I think I'll end up moving it soon.  It seems that the subfamily Ischnocolonae continues to be a foster home in systematics.   Cyclosternum used to be in this subfamily, as did Thrixopelma and a host of others.  Recently (as of 2001), spiders have been reclassified out of Theraphosinae (Pamphobeteus in specific) into this one.  However, this genus was listed as being in synonymy with Holothele by Raven in 1985 and that synonymy was recognized by Platnick, but recent efforts by other arachnologists has changed that.  It seems there is little agreement in taxonomyland, and that is to be expected- classifiying such a mysterious animal must be difficult.
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Proshapalopus   amazonicus None Formerly known as Pamphobeteus anomalus
Proshapalopus  anomalus* None  The first of this genus that was described; may be synonymous with Holothele anomala
Proshapalopus  multicuspidatus None
Used to be part of the
  Phormictopus genus, then it was a Cyclosternum.  It resides here. . . for now.
Back to top

Subfamily: Ornithoctoninae
These are tarantulas revered for their colorations and defensiveness.  Most are native to southeastern Asia, enjoy high humidity, and have a striped pattern on the opisthosoma.
Most are of quite similar external appearance and some species may be removed sooner than later (and plenty more new discoveries added) by Volker von Wirth once he completes his research on this subfamily.

Common Name
Odds n' ends
Citharognathus hosei, tongmianensis None Borneo and China, respectively.
Cyriopagopus dromeus None
From the Philippines.  There's no dividing line in their metatarsal scopulae and they're a reddish/chestnut color overall.
Asian Chevron
Spiders sold in the pet trade under this moniker are not C. paganus.  They're generally brownish/ash gray with a somewhat mottled tiger stripe pattern on the abdomen.
More information and photos are located here
Odds are, the majority  are a Haplopelma sp. (temporarily called "longipedum" or "Vietnam").  What's being sold resembles none of the other known Cyriopagopus in habits  in terms of their prediliction for climbing, not burrowing. The type for C. paganus is missing and has been missing since the 1940's. 
The type of the real C. paganus was found near Dawaei (aka Tavoy), in what is now Tanintharyi state, Myanmar.
Volker von Wirth of Germany is revising this subfamily and hopes to work out such quandries.
Cyriopagopus schioedtei Malaysian Giant Earth Tiger Beautiful tropical arboreals.  They have a greenish-yellow carapace and the abdomen striping common to this subfamily on a pale background. 
To my knowledge, most captive breeding attempts have resulted in failure and they therefore could become very rare in the wild.
However, captive breeding efforts have recently been seeing more success and 4 eggsacs have hatched in the U.S. as of 2002.
These spiders are sometimes mistakenly sold as C. thorelli.
Cyriopagopus thorelli None See notes under
 C. schioedtei
Haplopelma albostriatum Thai zebra (not to be confused with A.seemani), Thai tiger, 
Tigerrump (not to be confused with C. fasciatum), Thai Black (not to be confused with H. minax)
Burrowing spiders that have a brown carapace, slight striping on the legs, an attitude, and a pet trade naming problem! 
Haplopelma sp. ("aureopilosum" "longipedum", and others) Many variations on the word "tiger" and a seemingly random region or color Like most others in this subfamily, these southeast Asians have a chevron pattern on their abdomens.  Due to difficulty with locating original type specimens and locality data, many Haplopelma species are unidentified and sold under a variety of names.  The most common "mystery" introductions to the pet trade are spiders sold as H. minax that aren't, and some sold as C. paganus that may be a Haplopelma species.  In addition, some Haplopelma spp. may not be different species, but just color variations. Also see notes under  C. paganus
Haplopelma doriae None Come from Borneo
Haplopelma hainanum Chinese Black Earth Tiger Large and black.  They are in the "red" category due to the value of their venom.  They need to be captive bred!
Haplopelma huwenum Variations of the "earth tiger" theme A golden Chinese spider originally called "Selenocosmia huwena" by Wang, Peng, and Xie in 1993; it was a member of the genus Selenocosmia until 2000, then it became  Ornithoctinus huwena. It is very similar to Haplopelma schmidti.
Cobalt Blue
 Gorgeous as subadults and females.  They have metallic blue legs.  The mature males are similar to 
H. albostriatum.
They're quite tense and quirky and readily bite.   These absolutely need the ability to burrow in captivity, as they are a very secretive species that thrives on privacy.  They are one of two known types of Haplopelma that have longer legs IV than legs I (the other is called Haplopelma longipipes for obvious reasons). 
More information and photos are located here.
Haplopelma longipes A wild variety, to include: Thai tiger, Asian Black Birdeater, etc. This spider was known as Haplopelma sp. "longipedum"
until Volker von Wirth formally described it in 2005.  It is very similar to H. lividum, only with dark legs.  Also like H. lividum, it has long legs IV.
It is more common in the European pet trade than the US.  In the United States, many keepers inadvertently confuse a similar looking spider with H. longipes, though it has smaller legs IV.  More information on that spider can be found here.
Thailand Black 
There are at least two color variants of this species. 
The one sold in the pet trade in the 1990's looked like other Haplopelma, but with velvety black legs and a dark carapace.  It is black. Pretty much all over.  Plain black. Coal black. Darth Vader black. There are rings at the joints, and a vague tiger pattern on the opisthosoma is noted under light in some individuals, but these slight features do not overshadow its darkness, even approaching a molt. What is likely a color variant of H. minax is often sold in the US as Cyriopagopus paganus, Haplopelma sp. "longipedum", and other names has a deep gray overall coloration, with a brownish opisthosoma.  More information on that spider is located  here
robustum, salangense
None, or variations of "Earth Tiger" Southeast Asia, to include Singapore, Malaysia, and Vietnam.  The type specimens for H. robustum are missing.  What's sometimes sold as H. robustum may be the as the pet-trade L. violaceopes. (or L. violaceopedes)
See also 
 L. violaceopedes
Golden Earth Tiger These Vietnamese spiders are large growing (8" females by some accounts), golden beasts that need ample soil for digging.
They're often sold as "Chinese Golden Earth Tiger", and their range does indeed extend north into China.  A female specimen was first described by Volker von Wirth in 1991.  They're captive-bred by the thousands  for venom research.  The peptides contained in Huwentoxin-I and Huwentoxin-II (the name comes from confusion with H. huwenum) provide clues to reactions in the human neurological system and therefore these spiders may well prove to be an aid to modern medicine. 

Borneo Giant Orange Fringed Only very recently introduced to the US pet trade in 1999, these southeast Asians are large dark burrowers that may be L. nigerrimum, or another Lampropelma species entirely.
Lampropelma violaceopes Singapore Violet;
Malaysian Blue Femur
Found in Malaysia.  It's unknown if this spider actually lives in Singapore, and it's further unclear exactly what species Abraham attributed to the genus Lampropelma. He may have jumbled two different species into his description.
What's being sold as L. violaceopes (or sometimes L. violaceopedes)in the pet trade is a burrowing spider that looks somewhat similar to a shaggy H. lividum with slightly flattened tarsi. 
There is also a large, blue Cyriopagopus species sometimes confused with L. violaceopes (it's arboreal).
Ornithoctonus andersoni Asian Mustard Long legged, tawny tarantulas from Myanmar
that like to web a lot
aureotibialis None Sometimes sold in the pet trade as Haplopelma sp."aureopilosum" or Haplopelma minax. It is a gorgeous, "fluffy" spider with black legs that have a slight orange tinge along the edges.
Ornithoctonus costalis None O. costalis has black legs and yellowish rigs at the "knee joints".  They are small for this genus and were known as H. costale until Volker von Wirth revised this subfamily in 2005.
They are in the "red" category due to their rarity in the pet trade.
everetti, fuchsi
None Indigenous to Sumatra and Borneo.  They're very similar to the beautiful Cyriopagopus species, with striped abdomens. Like Cyriopagopus, they are arboreal.

Back to top

Subfamily: Poecilotheriinae
These are the Indian "tree spiders" native to India and Sri Lanka.
Their habitat in southern India and Sri Lanka is rapidly dwindling due to deforestation.   They were under consideration for inclusion to CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) in a proposal sponsored by the United States and Sri Lanka, but that proposal was rejected in April, 2000.  If they are included in CITES, they can't be exported, yet where they live will likely be destroyed (at least in the case of India).  Some scientists estimated that some Poecilotheria spp. would be extinct by 2005 if human expansion into their habitat continued at its present rate (Charpentier 1996).  It hasn't happened yet, but, in the seconds it took you to read that, another tree full of Poecilotheria just went down. For that reason, all are on the "red list", as captive breeding of this genus needs to be a top priority!

Common Name
Odds n' ends
Poecilotheria  fasciata Sri Lankan Ornamental Found near Kandy, Sri Lanka, these fast moving gray and black spiders require a well-ventilated home and do well with a moderate amount of humidity.  Similar in dorsal coloration to P. formosa and P. regalis.
Their habitat is moderate year-round (with temperatures seldomly exceeding 80F), yet gets quite dry in the summer and exceedingly rainy in the winter months from November to January. 
Sir James Tennent, in one of the first descriptions of a tarantula bite, describes how a man disturbed a P. fasciata in a wine cellar.  The result was swelling and local inflammation.
 Salem Ornamental
India.  These "tree spiders" are reminiscent of a less spectacular P. regalis without the ventral band.
None (Tiger Spider)
Recently described by Andrew Smith and named after a wildlife sanctuary in India.  Hopefully, if the environment continues to be protected, Charpentier's prediction won't come true. . .at least with this species.
Poecilotheria  metallica Gooty Oramental An extremely beautiful "pokie" from India. Those in the pet trade have metallic blue appendages, blue chelicerae, a blue fringe around the carapace, and a blue stripe down the dorsal center of the opisthosoma.  Pocock's original description of an adult female from Gooty, however, portrays coloration similar to a less-defined P. subfusca, and the name is attributed to the bluish sheen on the otherwise brown surfaces on ventral side of the anterior legs. 
Rick West's site at Birdspiders reveals several color variations.
They have recently been introduced to the US pet trade; hopefully, proper attention will be given to captive breeding in the U.S. instead of just selling as many as possible to whomever for a quick buck (note: Kelly Swift produced the first captive-bred P. metallica in the US in early 2005).
The original exporters in Europe are indeed wise enough to have withheld breeding groups from sale.
Poecilotheria  miranda None
(Sometimes sold as "Four Spotted Ornamental")
India.  These beautiful brownish arboreals have four prominent brown spots along the dorsal abdominal stripe.  They've only recently been introduced to the US pet trade at exploitive prices without attention to establishing a captive bred population in the country. Hopefully, those who have been buying them will make an effort to breed them upon maturity if non-cogeners become available.  Europeans have insured a captive-bred population on "the other side of the pond".
Fringed Ornamental
 From Sri Lanka.  These, along with P. rufilata, are the largest growing of the genus and one of the most beautiful.  They have the  typical yellow markings  on the undersides of the forelegs as well as some yellow patterning on the top side.  While more prolific with reproduction than some other members of this genus, they are not as socially tolerant.
 A medically documented bite of P. ornata describes immediate, local swelling at the finger, and pain extending to the armpit.  After-effects included a mild allergic reaction as well as joint soreness, but nothing to suggest any effects of severe consequence (Dougherty 2004).
Poecilotheria  pederseni None This is a newly discovered species named after Nicolai Pedersen.
It has white bands on the undersides of its forelegs instead of the typical yellow bands.
Poecilotheria  regalis Indian Ornamental From India.  These can be distinguished from the other "pokies" by a whiteish/cream colored band on the underside of the opisthoma.
 P. regalis was accidentally classified in the Ornithoctoninae subfamily by Tikader, and was called "Ornithoctonus gadgili" for a brief time.
This species is reputed to be socially tolerant in captivity.
However, I have heard about and personally observed cases in which a male matured before his female siblings and was attacked under captive conditions.
In the wild, several generations may inhabit the same tree.
More information and photos are located here.
Poecilotheria  rufilata Redslate Ornamental India. These, along with P. ornata, are the largest arboreal tarantulas.  They have reddish hairs sprouting from the legs and beautiful yellowish markings.  They, like P. subfusca, enjoy milder temperatures. 
Poecilotheria smithi None Sri Lanka. 
These were mistaken for P. subfusca before the actual P. subfusca was introduced to the European pet trade 1989. Later, they were thought to be P. bara, but careful cross referencing and persistence by Philip Charpentier in 1996 showed them to be different, so he declared the new species P. pockocki.  Later, it was synomized with P. smithi, which Peter Kirk described earlier the same year.
They are not exceptionally colored, with dorsal patterns similar to P. regalis, but no yellow forelegs or transverse band on the ventral surface of the opisthosoma.
They have proven exceedingly difficult to breed, and their habitat is dwindling rapidly. 
Poecilotheria striata Mysore Ornamental Southern India.  Some do not agree with Peter Kirk's 1996 assertion that the species Poecilotheria vittata is the same thing as P. striata (however, P. vittata was described from a single male with no locality data).Hence, P. vittata may be renewed as a species.
P. striata has similar coloration to P. regalis without the ventral band, and the "caution bands" on the ventral sides of the forelegs may be more orange than yellow.
Ivory Ornamental
Highlands of Sri Lanka.  These are absolutely grand examples of a beautiful spider.  Their color patterns are more bold than some other members of this genus, and the contrast of yellow/black/gray on their dorsal sides (along with Sri Lanka's closure to exports) make them command a high price. 
They live in the mild climates of the coffee and tea plantations near Pundaloya, where elevations are above 5,000 feet and temperatures seldom exceed 75 degrees F. Unlike many other Poecilotheria species, these aren't accustomed to heat and an extremely dry season followed by monsoons- their habitat remains about a comfortable 70% humidity year-round, with very nice, cool temps. They were found to be the same as P. bara by Peter Kirk's extensive work with this genus in the late 1980's/early 1990's.
They are reportedly the most socially tolerant Theraphosid  (Striffler 2003).  This is good thing, as their broods are small in number and they are not easy to breed.
Poecilotheria  tigrinawesseli Wessel's Tiger Spider This Indian species was described by Andrew Smith in 2006. 
It somewhat resembles P. formosa, and is fortunately being captive bred in Europe.
Poecilotheria  uniformis None Sri Lanka

Back to top

Subfamily: Selenocosmiinae
Eastern hemisphere tarantulas, including some Australian ones.  Some are profuse web dwellers and many enjoy burrowing.
Others, such as Poecilotheria and Psalmopoeus, are arboreal.
Note: For the genus Psalmopoeus, see here
For the genus Poecilotheria, see here

Common Name
Odds n' ends
andersoni, annandalei, assamensis, bicolor, brevipes,
nitelinus ,oculatus,paviei
pococki, sericeus, soricinus, stridulans
 thorelli, tschankoensis
Thai brown, Asian Giant Fawn, Malaysian Red-Brown, Burmese Black, many other assorted variations of a region and a color
(it is unsure which specific species these pet trade names belong to, and even more unlikely that the correct species name has been attributed to the spiders sold);
C. fimbriatus is sometimes marketed as "Indian Violet"
This genus has a range west to India, east to Vietnam, north to China, and south to Sri Lanka.  They are members of a recent  Asian importation to the US.  Most spiders of this genus attain typical "tarantula" size. However, a few, such as C. nitelinus (of Sri Lanka) and C. flavopilosus (from the lowland in north-central Myanmar), are a bit small. 
All tend to have long spinnerets, which they definitely use!

C. andersoni can be found near Tenasserim, and probably up through the central valley of upper Myanmar, into India.

C. femoralis is found northeast of Goa, near Nasik. 

C. fimbriatus is found around Khandala and Satara (north of Goa), India.

C. flavopilosus is found east of the Irrawaddy River, near Tharrawaddy, a rice and teak farming lowland in central Myanmar.

C. pococki is found at higher elevations (about 1300m) in the hills east of Toungoo in Kayin State, Myanmar and along the Thai border.

C. sericeus is found in northeastern Myanmar, by the upper Ayeyarwady River.  Thorell also recorded the sepcies from the lowland deltas around Palon.  It probably has a pretty wide range all slong the rivers through the middle of Myanmar.

C. soricinus was discovered in Myanmar, but Thorell lists it as from Vietnam as well (Cochinchina).

Coremiocnemis  cunicularia None, possibly marketed as Malaysian Reddish Brown These southeast Asians are reputed to have strong venom
Coremiocnemis tropix None This Australian was recently described Dr. Robert Raven himself.
Further details can be found  in the journal   Zootaxa 
valida Singapore Brown  C. valida has black femurs with a brown carapace, a purplish opisthosoma, and brownish to purplish ends on their legs. 
Newly described from Nepal.  Some suggest that the description on this species may be in error and it's actually the same animal as Selenocosmia himalayana.
None  Range from India to Malaysia. L. robustus is similar in build to members of the Eucratosceles genus with its thickened rear legs, but is very similar to members of Coremiocnemis otherwise. 
Orphnaecus pellitus None Found in the Philippines.  A spider bearing this moniker has recently been imported from the Philipines. It bears a similar red/black constrasting coloration to S. dichromata.

brevipes, bundokalbo, inermis,insularis,
mutus,nebulosus, ornatus
subarmatus, subinermis
None  This genus has a very wide range, from southeast Asia to Indian and Pacific ocean islands and  Australia. 

Phlogiellus brevipes (not to be confused with Chilobrachys brevipes) lives in the steep Dawna Mountains of Myanmar at about 1300 m. in elevation.



philippinus None A very newly described species (Schmidt, 1999) that lives in the Phillipines.
Selenocosmia arndsti New Guinea Black Femur Formerly a member of the Chilocosmia, but placed in this genus by Raven in 2000.  A defensive/reclusive tarantula with rusty colored legs and opisthosoma (similar to the coloring of the king baboon), a mustard colored carapace, and black femurs.
Selenocosmia aruana, compta, crassipes, deliana None These terrestrials range from Sumatra to New Guinea to Australia.
Selenocosmia dichromata New Guinea Rust-Orange From New Guinea. S. dichromata has a salmon colored carapace and velvety black legs and opisthosoma. It used to be part of the Chilocosmia genus.   Like members of the Haplopelma genus, these burrowers are very secretive and need privacy to thrive.
More information and photos are located here.
Selenocosmia effera, fuliginea,
honesta, imbellis,insignis,

(to include ssp. brachyplectra
 javanensis, dolichoplectra,
javanensis, fulva,
 javanensis, and sumatrana)

lanipes, lyra, mittmannae*, obscura
peerboomi, pritami,
raciborskii, samarae,similis, stirlingi
strenua, strubelli

Sometimes members of this genus from New Guinea are sold as
New Guinea Grey Velvet
and S. javanesis varieties are sold as Javan Yellowknee.  S. lanipes are called New Guinea Browns.
S. obscura is marketed as Borneo Walnut-brown.
Members of this genus range from India to southeast Asia, and north to China and south to Australia (S. strenua, S. subvulpina and others).
Like all members of this subfamily, they supposedly have venom of stronger potency than most tarantulas.
*Note: For S. hainana see the Ornithoctoninae subfamily.
S. kulluensis is from the Kullu Valley of India, and similar to S. himalayana with its gray/brown coloration. 
The description of S. mittmannae was published in a non-peer reviewed magazine, so its validity is questionable.
None From northern Australia
None Another Australian variety
Yamia muta, watasei None Small, uniformly colored tarantulas from the Philipines (Y. muta) and Orchid Island (Y. watasei). For Y. bundokalbo, see Phlogiellus.

Genera:Psalmopoeus and Tapinauchenius
These genera are unique in terms of their relationship to other Theraphosidae.  They stridulate via structures somewhat similar to that of the Selenocosmiinae, yet they are native to the Americas. Unlike other genera of Aviculariinae, they have no urticating bristles. Some taxonomists assert that they are an evolutionary relative of the Selenocosmiinae, like Poecilotheria (Pocock 1899). In captivity, I've observed the mating behavior of P. irminia to be more reminiscent of P. regalis than A. avicularia, and have seen both males and females of P. regalis make drumming overtures to P. irminia, which responded in kind!
However, the mature males do have spurs (much like those of Ephebopus spp.); Poecilotheria and the Selenocosmiinae do not.  Like other members of Aviculariinae, the male's emboli are simple in both Psalmopoeus and Tapinauchenius. Those of Poecilotheria are more complex. Ontogenetically, the color pattern development of young Tapinauchenius (and to some extent, Psalmopoeus) reinforce their long-term evolution in their niche, in similar fashion to Aviculariinae.
Truly, these genera are a testament to scientific hypotheses about biological evolution- there doesn't see to be an agreeable home for them right now, but figuring out where they fit in an evolutionary fashion could be revealing about more than just the spiders themselves. Their placement is an important consideration, as it could provide clues as to how other animals are evolving, and how our planet is changing.

Genus Species Common Name Odds n' ends
Psalmopoeus affinis* None A Caribbean spider that may or may not exist. Strand's description gives little detail that would separate it from other species.
Psalmopoeus cambridgei Trinidad Chevron Native to Trinidad.  Like the others in this subfamily, this arboreal can be zippy.  Most are somewhat defensive.
Psalmopoeus ecclesiasticus, emeraldus
 intermedius, maya*
None P. ecclesiasticus may be found in Ecuador, near Rio Sapayo and Carondelet. P. maya was described in 1996.   There are reports of a similar spider ranging even farther north, perhaps into Mexico. The type specimens of P. maya were not deposited at the museum mentioned in Witt's description, and it is possible that the species is a darker version of P. reduncas (Reichling 2003).
P. plantaris may be found near Cauca, Columbia.
Psalmopoeus irminia Suntiger; Venezuelan Suntiger
Gorgeous South Americans!  They have bright orangish markings on their legs.
Somewhat defensive. More information and photos can be found here.

Psalmopoeus pulcher Panama Blonde Climbing Panamanians that are blonde overall, with a dark patch on the posterior as juveniles/ young adults.
Psalmopoeus reduncus Costa Rican Orangemouth Brownish spiders with orange hairs around their "mouths".  They range all over Costa Rica, from the east to the west, at varying altitudes.  They have also been found in Panama and as far south as Venezuela, and  as far north as Belize.
Psalmopoeus rufus None Found in Central America
Tapinauchenius brunneus, cupreus, elenae None T. cupreus is absolutely stunning with its metallic tones (its name is derived from its coppery appearance).  It is reputed to be the smallest growing of this genus. 
Tapinauchenius gigas Orange Chevron Fast, light colored arboreals from Venezuela and Guyana.  Somewhat defensive.
Unlike most other members of this genus, T. gigas lacks the metallic overtones in coloration. 
Tapinauchenius latipes None Discovered near Puerto Cabello, Venezuela.  Quite similar to T. cupreus, but larger.
Tapinauchenius plumipes Trinidad Mahogany Brownish, fast, somewhat defensive.  This species ranges much farther than the island of Trinidad.  They are not uncommon in Surinam and they have a broader range in northern Guyana and northeastern Venezuela as well.  (Some have supposed that T. plumipes may range as far west as Peru!)
purpureus, sanctivincenti
None These are seldom available in the pet trade.

Back to top

Subfamily: Selenogyrinae
Indian and African tarantulas.

Common Name 
Odds n' Ends
Annandaliella pectinifera, travancorica None India.  Somewhat unspectacular tarantulas with short, slender legs.
Euphrictus spinosus, squamosus None Cameroon
africanus,aureus, austini brunneus, caeruleus
None West Africa

Back to top

Subfamily: Spelopelminae
See the genus Hemirrhagus under subfamily Theraphosinae

Back to top

Subfamily: Stromatopelminae
West African Arboreals.  Philip Charpentier's travels to Africa and persistent work have greatly clarified mysteries about the life cycles and habitats of these species.

Common Name
Odds n' Ends
Encyocratella olivacea None A species newly described by Richard Gallon in 2003 as Xenodendrophila gabrieli.  The males have no tibial spurs.  The females lack spermathecae.
Gallon recently found out this Tanzanian matched Strand's 1907 description of Encyocratella.
A fascinating fact about this highland African arboreal is that it can still lay fertile eggs after a post-coitial molt ( as can Sickius).
Heteroscodra crassipes
 crassipes latithorax
None The members of this genus are quick moving arboreals.
Heteroscodra maculata Togo Starburst,
Oranmental Baboon
  Fuzzy grayish-golden arboreals that prefer low-lying palms and scrub for homes.  They may spend a good amount of time on, in, or near the ground as youngsters.
More information and photos are located here.
Heteroscodra pachypoda None From the Congo
Stromatopelma  batesi None Cameroon, Congo, Zaire, etc.
Stromatopelma  calceatum


Featherleg Baboon
(not to be confused with Eucratoscelus pachypus).
Medium sized arboreals
that inhabit a wide range in west-central Africa.  These inhabit the crown of tall palms, but have also migrated to fruit trees when palms are not available. 
They are easily distinguished from Heteroscodra maculata due to the thinner legs IV.
Stromatopelma  calceatum griseipes None These have tufts of hair on the rear legs.  They supposedly have a nasty bite. In fact, Philip Charpentier has written about the effects of Stromatopelma spp. bites, and says they include traveling pain of an electric magnitude (he compares it to being shocked and feeling a current rush through one's body) that can persist for hours, and he describes swelling at the site of the bite. In his personal experience, he has endured mild cramping in a punctured finger for some weeks afterward.  While they do not have an LD50 that comes anywhere near approaching medically significant (significant being Latrodectus spp. spiders, Buthid scorpions, etc.), they and other members of this subfamily do demand caution due to the potential pain.
Stromatopelma  fumigatum, satanas None
One can only wonder what S. satanas is like. A single male holotype was found in Gabon and described by Berland in 1917. Females have been described by Andrew Smith since then, so it may not be synymous with another Stromatopelma species- just rarely seen. 
See Encyocratella

Back to top

Subfamily: Theraphosinae
There are so many genera in this subfamily that it got its own page, which is sorted by genus.
Click below:
 The Theraphosinae Page

Subfamily: Thrigmopoeinae
Indian Tarantulas.

Common Name
Odds n' ends
Haploclastus cervinus, himalayensis
kayi, nilgirinus, robustus, satyanus, tenebrosus
None From India.  This genus may be synonimized with Thrigmopoeus soon.  The only big difference between the two genera is that the stridulating bristles on Haploclastus are random in spacing.  In Thrigmopoeus, they're in a definite pattern.
H. cervinus has legs of fairly equal lengths. For H. nilgirinus, the legs are more like Thrigmopoeus, with short legs IV.
Thrigmopoeus insignis, truculentus None (sometimes T. truculentus is marketed as "Indian Black Femur") Also from India. Both may be found in southwestern India in Uttara Kannada (formerly Kanara).  These are somewhat similar in build to members of the genus Ephebopus, with thin hind legs and flattened forelegs.

  Back to top
| Eight Home|
© 2019   All rights reserved.